Energy-conscious urban planning and development- lessons from a case-study
INESC - University of Coimbra, Portugal
Demand-Side Management has been used for a long time as an efficient strategy for the transformation of the energy market, that should be used in urban development in general.
2 - Abstract
During the last fifteen to twenty years, DSM -- with this or other designation -- has made an invaluable contribution to sustainable development, allowing growth to be simultaneous with environment protection. The theory and practice behind DSM is actually fundamental to the Market Transformation concept, which relies on the action of both regulators, economic agents and consumers to achieve an energy efficient economy through education, technology replacements and adequate building and energy management. Utilities' attitudes towards energy efficiency promotion are adapting to market liberalisation. This is the reason why the well-known DSM designation tends to be avoided by utilities' people. Nevertheless it is necessary to keep energy efficiency as a key concept for action. The paper uses the EXPO'98 case as an example of a project in this direction. Namely, it emphasises the importance of local authorities in environmentally sustainable development. The paper tries to make a four-fold contribution: give a brief view of present market conditions that influence the attitudes of governments and energy suppliers towards energy efficiency -- at large and at the EXPO'98 level; present a summary of the main orientations that provide the background for the sustainable development of the urban space at the EXPO'98 site, from the points of view of energy and the environment; discuss some opportunities for energy savings and for influencing the rate of energy use according to the DSM portfolio of measures; point out some key issues of possible guidelines for future terms of reference regarding artificial lighting, whose necessity is justified as it has been largely overlooked in favour of thermal energy services.