ELECTRICAL PEAK-DEMAND REDUCTION: INCENTIVES AND TECHNIQUES FOR LOCAL CONTROL
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra (FCTUC)
Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC)
Electric utilities around the world have been concerned or involved in a progressive manner in demand side-management (DSM). Through DSM utilities seek to influence the way customers use electric energy in order to modify the load diagram shape. The main objective is to use available resources more efficiently and defer investments, providing simultaneously a high level of customer satisfaction.
In the paper Time of Day (ToD) rates are discussed as one of the means available to utilities for implementing electric load shifting and peak clipping, two of the main DSM objectives. The structure of tariffs based on the ToD approach usually contain different prices for the kWh according to the time of day and also a power demand charge.
Customers are thus influenced towards adopting local load management strategies, including automatic peak demand control (PDC). The paper also assesses the main methods of PDC implementation and their fundamental characteristics.